Indonesia economic overview
Indonesia, an archipelago nation straddling Southeast Asia, boasts the fifth largest economy in Asia, with a GDP of over USD 1 trillion and a population of over 270 million. Growth has been robust at around 5% for the last decade, lower than the rates recorded in other major emerging Asian economies such as China, India, Vietnam or the Philippines.Resource wealth:
Indonesia's economy is characterized by its rich natural resources. In particular, Indonesia is a major producer of nickel, palm oil, copper, coal, tin and bauxite. In recent years, the government has clamped down on exports of several key commodities to encourage investment in locally based processing facilities and thus move up the value chain.Diverse economic make-up:
In addition to mining, Indonesia's agricultural sector is also large, accounting for about 12% of GDP in 2022 and a much larger share of the workforce. Indonesia also has a growing industrial base, which, in addition to commodity processing, includes textiles and chemicals. The services sector is a large contributor to Indonesia's economy but is still a notably smaller share of GDP than in developed nations, reflecting Indonesia's status as an emerging economy.Challenges:
The Indonesian economy faces several challenges, including poverty and inequality, poor educational attainment, infrastructure bottlenecks, and corruption, which will likely continue to keep a lid on the economy's economic potential in the coming years. Climate change and extreme weather events are also risks, given that the economy is located in a region that experiences tropical storms and tsunamis.Indonesia's economic outlook:
The economy should expand notably above the Asia ex-Japan average over our forecast horizon to 2028, notwithstanding the aforementioned challenges. Rising tourist arrivals, raw material processing activity, electronics and automobile output will provide support against a backdrop of business-friendly government policy.
Indonesia's economy in numbers:
Nominal GDP of USD 1,319 billion in 2022.
GDP per capita of USD 4,798 compared to the global average of USD 10,589.
Average real GDP growth of 4.4% over the last decade.
Economic structure:In 2021, services accounted for 47% of overall GDP, manufacturing 19%, other industrial activity 21%, and agriculture 13%. Looking at GDP by expenditure, private consumption accounted for 56% of GDP in 2021, government consumption 9%, fixed investment 31%, and net exports 4%.
International trade:In 2021, manufactured products made up 45% of total merchandise exports, mineral fuels 19%, food 23%, ores and metals 7% and agricultural raw materials 5%, with other categories accounting for 1% of the total. In the same period, manufactured products made up 65% of total merchandise imports, mineral fuels 15%, food 12%, ores and metals 4% and agricultural raw materials 3%, with other goods accounting for 1% of the total. Total exports were worth USD 293 billion in 2022, while total imports were USD 230 billion.
The economy recorded average annual growth of 4.4% in the decade to 2022. To read more about GDP growth in Indonesia, go to our dedicated page.
Indonesia's fiscal deficit averaged 2.8% of GDP in the decade to 2022. Find out more on our dedicated page.
The unemployment rate averaged 5.8% in the decade to 2022. For more information on Indonesia's unemployment click here.
Inflation averaged 4.1% in the decade to 2022. Go to our Indonesia inflation page for extra insight.
Indonesia's monetary policy rate ended 2022 at 5.50%, down from 5.75% a decade earlier. See our Indonesia monetary policy page for additional details.
From end-2012 to end-2022 the rupiah weakened by 38.1% vs the U.S. dollar. For more info on the rupiah, click here.
49 indicators covered including both annual and quarterly frequencies.
Consensus Forecasts based on a panel of 41 expert analysts.
Want to get insight on the economic outlook for Indonesia in the coming years? FocusEconomics collects projections out to 2033 on 49 economic indicators for Indonesia from a panel of 41 analysts at the leading national, regional and global forecast institutions. These projections are then validated by our in-house team of economists and data analysts, and averaged to provide one Consensus Forecast you can rely on for each indicator. This means you avoid the risk of relying on out of date, biased or outlier forecasts. Our Consensus Forecasts can be visualized in whichever way best suits your needs, including via interactive online dashboards , direct data delivery and executive-style reports which combine analysts' projections with timely written analysis from our in-house team of economists on the latest developments in the Indonesia economy. To download a sample report on the Indonesia's economy, click here . To get in touch with our team for more information, fill in the form at the bottom of this page .
Indonesia Economic Data
What is Indonesia's main economic sector?
What are the major economic issues in Indonesia?
What is the economic situation of Indonesia?
The largest economic sector in Indonesia is the services sector, which accounts for nearly 50% of the country's GDP, followed by industry and agriculture.
Indonesia's economy grapples with challenges like dependence on natural resource exports, infrastructure gaps, regional disparities, and a need for skilled labor. Corruption, complex regulations, environmental issues, and income inequality also impede growth.
Indonesia's economy is growing robustly. Key strengths include abundant natural resources, a large and growing population, strategic location, and government reforms aimed at infrastructure development and improving the ease of doing business. These factors position Indonesia for continued economic growth and regional influence in the coming years.