Bangladesh

Bangladesh Economy

Bangladesh's economy in numbers:

Nominal GDP of USD 431 billion in 2023.

GDP per capita of USD 2,528 compared to the global average of USD 10,589.

Average real GDP growth of 6.4% over the last decade.

Share of the region's population
Share of the region's GDP

Economic structure:

In 2021, services accounted for 55% of overall GDP, manufacturing 21%, other industrial activity 12%, and agriculture 12%. Looking at GDP by expenditure, private consumption accounted for 69% of GDP in 2021, government consumption 6%, fixed investment 31%, and net exports -6%.

GDP by economic sector
GDP by type of expenditure

International trade:

In 2015, manufactured products made up 96% of total merchandise exports, mineral fuels 1%, food 3%, ores and metals 0% and agricultural raw materials 1%, with other categories accounting for -1% of the total. In the same period, manufactured products made up 63% of total merchandise imports, mineral fuels 11%, food 17%, ores and metals 3% and agricultural raw materials 6%, with other goods accounting for 0% of the total. Total exports were worth USD 51 billion in 2022, while total imports were USD 80 billion.

Key exports
Key imports
Key export partners
Key import partners

Economic growth:

The economy recorded average annual growth of 6.4% in the decade to 2023. To read more about GDP growth in Bangladesh, go to our dedicated page.

Fiscal policy:

Bangladesh's fiscal deficit averaged 3.7% of GDP in the decade to 2022. Find out more on our dedicated page.

Unemployment:

The unemployment rate averaged 4.5% in the decade to 2022. For more information on Bangladesh's unemployment click here.

Inflation:

Inflation averaged 6.2% in the decade to 2022. Go to our Bangladesh inflation page for extra insight.

Monetary Policy:

Bangladesh's monetary policy rate ended 2022 at 4.00%, down from 5.00% a decade earlier. See our Bangladesh monetary policy page for additional details.

Exchange Rate:

From end-2012 to end-2022 the taka weakened by 22.3% vs the U.S. dollar. For more info on the taka, click here.
GDP growth for the fiscal year ending in June 2024 (FY 2024) was 5.8%, according to a preliminary release, mirroring the previous fiscal year's performance. The agricultural and industrial sectors slowed, with weaker manufacturing the main culprit with regard to the latter. On a brighter note, construction and services output grew more robustly, with faster growth also seen in the education, financial, ICT, real estate, public, and arts and recreation subsectors. In terms of expenditure, growth in private spending, investment and net exports accelerated, while public spending growth weakened. In other news, in early July, the Prime Minister cut short her visit to China after Beijing promised to loan just USD 100 million to Bangladesh—far below the USD 5 billion hoped for by the government. This development may cool relations between the two countries despite having warmed recently.
Projections out to 2034.

40 indicators covered including both annual and quarterly frequencies.

Consensus Forecasts based on a panel of 10 expert analysts.

Want to get insight on the economic outlook for Bangladesh in the coming years? FocusEconomics collects projections out to 2034 on 40 economic indicators for Bangladesh from a panel of 10 analysts at the leading national, regional and global forecast institutions. These projections are then validated by our in-house team of economists and data analysts, and averaged to provide one Consensus Forecast you can rely on for each indicator. This means you avoid the risk of relying on out of date, biased or outlier forecasts. Our Consensus Forecasts can be visualized in whichever way best suits your needs, including via interactive online dashboards , direct data delivery and executive-style reports which combine analysts' projections with timely written analysis from our in-house team of economists on the latest developments in the Bangladesh economy. To download a sample report on the Bangladesh's economy, click here. To get in touch with our team for more information, fill in the form at the bottom of this page .

Bangladesh Economic Data

2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Population (million) 163 165 167 169 170
GDP (USD bn) 351 374 416 460 436
GDP per capita (USD) 2,153 2,269 2,499 2,729 2,558
GDP (BDT bn) 29,514 31,705 35,302 39,717 44,908
Economic Growth (Nominal GDP, ann. var. %) 11.8 7.4 11.3 12.5 13.1
Economic Growth (GDP, ann. var. %) 7.9 3.4 6.9 7.1 5.8
Private Consumption (ann. var. %) 4.9 3.0 8.0 7.5 2.0
Government Consumption (ann. var. %) 13.4 2.0 6.9 6.2 8.5
Total Investment (ann. var. %) 6.9 3.9 8.1 11.7 2.2
Industry (ann. var. %) 11.6 3.6 10.3 9.9 8.4
Unemployment (% of active population, aop) 4.7 5.8 5.8 5.2 5.1
Fiscal Balance (% of GDP) -5.4 -4.8 -3.6 -4.1 -4.6
Public Debt (% of GDP) 32.0 34.5 35.6 37.9 39.8
Money (ann. var. of M2 %) 9.9 12.6 13.6 9.4 10.5
Inflation (CPI, ann. var. %, eop) 5.7 5.3 6.1 8.7 9.4
Inflation (CPI, ann. var. %, aop) 5.6 5.7 5.5 7.7 9.5
Exchange Rate (BDT per USD, eop) 84.95 84.72 84.86 103.02 109.75
Exchange Rate (BDT per USD, aop) 84.42 84.88 84.90 92.65 108.03
Current Account Balance (USD bn) -4.5 -5.4 -4.6 -18.6 -3.3
Current Account Balance (% of GDP) -1.3 -1.5 -1.1 -4.1 -0.8
Merchandise Trade Balance (USD bn) -15.6 -16.4 -32.5 -28.9 -9.7
Merchandise Exports (USD bn) 39.0 32.4 42.0 51.0 51.5
Merchandise Imports (USD bn) 54.6 48.8 74.5 79.9 61.2
Merchandise Exports (ann. var. %) 1.1 -17.0 29.5 21.6 1.0
Merchandise Imports (ann. var. %) 0.1 -10.6 52.5 7.3 -23.4
Foreign Direct Investment (USD bn) 2.9 2.6 2.9 3.5 3.0
International Reserves (USD bn) 32.7 43.2 46.2 33.7 27.1
International Reserves (months of imports) 7.2 10.6 7.4 5.1 5.3
External Debt (USD bn) 62.5 73.6 91.5 97.0 -
External Debt (% of GDP) 17.8 19.7 22.0 21.1 -

Free Sample Report

Interested in Bangladesh economic reports, analysis and data? FocusEconomics provides data, forecasts and analysis for hundreds of countries and commodities. Request your free sample report now.

Close Left Media Arrows Left Media Circles Right Media Arrows Right Media Circles Arrow Quote Wave Address Email Telephone Man in front of screen with line chart Document with bar chart and magnifying glass Application window with bar chart Target with arrow Line Chart Stopwatch Globe with arrows Document with bar chart in front of screen Bar chart with magnifying glass and dollar sign Lightbulb Document with bookmark Laptop with download icon Calendar Icon Nav Menu Arrow Arrow Right Long Icon Arrow Right Icon Chevron Right Icon Chevron Left Icon Briefcase Icon Linkedin In Icon Full Linkedin Icon Filter Facebook Linkedin Twitter Pinterest