Macchu Picchu Peru

Perú Economy

Peru economic overview

Volatile economic growth trajectory:

Located on the western coast of South America, Peru boasts the sixth-largest economy in Latin America, with a GDP of around USD 240 billion in 2022 and a population of 34 million. It is classified as an upper-middle-income economy by the World Bank, though GDP per capita is still below the Latin American average. Peru's economy experienced significant growth in the decade leading up to the pandemic, often exceeding 4% year on year. However, the economy saw a double-digit contraction in 2020, and eked out soft growth in 2022 and 2023 below the Latin America average, weighed on by socio-political instability.

Free trade promoter:

Peru is an active promoter of free trade, being a member of the Andean Community along with Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, part of the Pacific Alliance together with Chile, Colombia and Mexico, and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). Peru also has trade deals in place with the EU and the U.S.

Large mining sector:

Peru's economy is characterized by its reliance on natural resource exports, particularly mining, as well as a growing services sector. Peru is the world's second-largest copper producer, and is also an important producer of gold and zinc. That said, mining activity has been periodically disrupted in recent years by protests by local communities; these protests are also weighing on investment in the sector.

Chronic political instability:

Peru's congress is highly fragmented, with dozens of political groupings enjoying parliamentary representation, making policymaking difficult. Moreover, congress has in recent years frequently removed sitting presidents; the country has seen five presidents since 2020. This is hampering structural economic reforms and holding back investment.


In addition to the aforementioned political instability, the Peruvian economy faces challenges including social unrest, a weak education system, exposure to fluctuations in commodity prices and vulnerability to extreme weather events—including the El Niño climate phenomenon, which tends to bring heavy rains.

Peru's economic outlook:

Peru still holds significant potential for growth, given its growing consumer market, abundant natural resources, attractiveness as a tourism destination and large web of trade agreements. Our Consensus is for growth to return to rates above the regional average in the coming years, though the economy will remain restrained by political disfunction.

Peru's economy in numbers:

Nominal GDP of USD 245 billion in 2022.

GDP per capita of USD 7,169 compared to the global average of USD 10,589.

Average real GDP growth of 3.2% over the last decade.

Share of the region's population
Share of the region's GDP

Economic structure:

In 2020, services accounted for 62% of overall GDP, manufacturing 12%, other industrial activity 18%, and agriculture 8%. Looking at GDP by expenditure, private consumption accounted for 61% of GDP in 2021, government consumption 14%, fixed investment 23%, and net exports 2%.

GDP by economic sector
GDP by type of expenditure

International trade:

In 2020, manufactured products made up 9% of total merchandise exports, mineral fuels 4%, food 26%, ores and metals 44% and agricultural raw materials 1%, with other categories accounting for 16% of the total. In the same period, manufactured products made up 74% of total merchandise imports, mineral fuels 9%, food 14%, ores and metals 1% and agricultural raw materials 1%, with other goods accounting for 1% of the total. Total exports were worth USD 66 billion in 2022, while total imports were USD 56 billion.

Key exports
Key imports
Key export partners
Key import partners

Economic growth:

The economy recorded average annual growth of 3.2% in the decade to 2022. To read more about GDP growth in Peru, go to our dedicated page.

Fiscal policy:

Peru's fiscal deficit averaged 1.9% of GDP in the decade to 2022. Find out more on our dedicated page.


The unemployment rate averaged 7.6% in the decade to 2022. For more information on Peru's unemployment click here.


Inflation averaged 3.3% in the decade to 2022. Go to our Peru inflation page for extra insight.

Monetary Policy:

Peru's monetary policy rate ended 2022 at 7.50%, up from 4.25% a decade earlier. See our Peru monetary policy page for additional details.

Exchange Rate:

From end-2012 to end-2022 the sol weakened by 31.6% vs the U.S. dollar. For more info on the sol, click here.
Following a sharper year-on-year contraction in Q3 than in Q2, the economy should have rebounded in the fourth quarter of last year, according to our panel. Economic activity fell less, on average, in October-November compared to Q3’s slump. In November, activity grew, sustained by an upside surprise from the mining and hydrocarbons sector and strong fishing activity. Additionally, inflation eased throughout the period, which—coupled with falling interest rates and healthy real wage growth—should have helped domestic demand. Moreover, merchandise exports swung from a year-on-year contraction in Q3 to a strong average increase in October-November, which points to strengthening external demand in Q4. The current quarter should see a further acceleration in growth, aided by a weak base effect, interest rate cuts in January and lower inflation.
Projections out to 2033.

53 indicators covered including both annual and quarterly frequencies.

Consensus Forecasts based on a panel of 45 expert analysts.

Want to get insight on the economic outlook for Peru in the coming years? FocusEconomics collects projections out to 2033 on 53 economic indicators for Peru from a panel of 45 analysts at the leading national, regional and global forecast institutions. These projections are then validated by our in-house team of economists and data analysts, and averaged to provide one Consensus Forecast you can rely on for each indicator. This means you avoid the risk of relying on out of date, biased or outlier forecasts. Our Consensus Forecasts can be visualized in whichever way best suits your needs, including via interactive online dashboards , direct data delivery and executive-style reports which combine analysts' projections with timely written analysis from our in-house team of economists on the latest developments in the Peru economy. To download a sample report on the Peru's economy, click here . To get in touch with our team for more information, fill in the form at the bottom of this page .

Perú Datos económicos

2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Población (millones) 32.2 33.2 33.5 33.8 34.2
PIB (en millones de dólares) 227 232 206 226 244
PIB per cápita (USD) 7,052 7,005 6,146 6,674 7,156
PIB (en miles de millones de PEN) 746 775 719 877 938
Crecimiento económico (PIB nominal, var. anual) 6.0 4.0 -7.2 21.9 6.9
Crecimiento económico (PIB, var. anual) 4.0 2.2 -11.0 13.6 2.7
Demanda interna (% var. anual) 4.1 2.2 -9.9 14.7 2.3
Consumo total (var. anual) 3.3 3.1 -7.3 12.1 2.5
Consumo privado (% var. anual) 3.8 3.2 -9.9 12.4 3.6
Consumo público (var. anual) 0.4 2.2 7.8 10.6 -3.4
Inversión fija (% var. anual) 4.4 3.3 -16.2 35.0 0.9
Exportaciones (G&S, % var. anual) 2.2 1.1 -19.6 13.7 5.4
Importaciones (G&S, % var. anual) 2.4 1.0 -15.8 18.4 4.0
Producción manufacturera (% var. anual) 5.9 -1.7 -12.6 18.7 1.0
Comercio (var. anual %) 2.5 2.5 -13.3 18.0 3.3
Desempleo (% de la población activa, eop) 6.1 6.1 13.8 7.8 7.1
Desempleo (% de la población activa, aop) 6.7 6.6 12.8 11.3 7.7
Saldo fiscal (% del PIB) -2.3 -1.6 -8.9 -2.5 -1.6
Deuda pública (% del PIB) 25.6 26.6 34.6 35.9 34.0
Dinero (var. anual de M2 %) 8.9 9.1 37.7 -4.0 -32.9
Inflación (IPC, % var. anual, eop) 2.2 1.9 2.0 6.4 8.5
Inflación (IPC, % var. anual, aop) 1.3 2.1 1.8 4.0 7.9
Inflación (Básica, var. anual %, eop) 2.6 2.2 1.8 3.8 6.5
Inflación (IPM, % var. anual, eop) 3.2 -0.1 1.6 13.6 7.0
Tipo de política monetaria (%, eop) 2.75 2.25 0.25 2.50 7.50
Tipo de cambio (PEN por USD, eop) 3.4 3.3 3.6 4.0 3.8
Tipo de cambio (PEN por USD, aop) 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.9 3.8
Balanza por cuenta corriente (en millones de dólares) -3 -2 2 -5 -11
Balanza por cuenta corriente (% del PIB) -1.3 -0.7 1.2 -2.3 -4.4
Balanza comercial de mercancías (en millones de USD) 7 7 8 15 10
Exportaciones de mercancías (en millones de dólares) 49 48 43 63 66
Importaciones de mercancías (en millones de dólares) 42 41 35 48 56
Exportaciones de mercancías (% var. anual) 8.0 -2.2 -10.6 47.2 4.3
Importaciones de mercancías (% var. anual) 8.1 -1.8 -15.6 38.9 16.7
Inversión extranjera directa (en millones de dólares) 7 6 -1 6 -
Reservas internacionales (en millones de dólares) 60 68 75 79 72
Reservas internacionales (meses de importaciones) 17.3 20.0 25.9 19.5 15.4
Deuda externa (en millones de dólares) 79 81 90 102 102
Deuda externa (% del PIB) 34.7 34.8 43.6 45.2 41.8


  1. How is the economy in Peru?

  2. Peru's economy has been dynamic in the last few decades but faces challenges. It benefits from rich natural resources, particularly in mining and agriculture, and has seen growth in sectors like manufacturing and tourism. However, it grapples with issues like income inequality, political instability, and reliance on commodity exports, which can be volatile.
  3. Does Peru have a strong economy?

  4. Peru has a growing economy with strong sectors in mining, agriculture, and fisheries. Peru is classified as an upper-middle-income economy by the World Bank and is a member of the Pacific Alliance and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). However, its economy faces challenges like income inequality, a chaotic political panorama and reliance on volatile commodity exports.
  5. Does Peru have natural resource wealth?

  6. Yes, Peru has abundant natural resource wealth, with copper, gold and iron among the country's top exports.

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