The coast of Greece

Grecia Economy

Greece's economy in numbers:

Nominal GDP of USD 217 billion in 2022.

GDP per capita of USD 20,763 compared to the global average of USD 10,589.

Average real GDP growth of 0.1% over the last decade.

Share of the region's population
Share of the region's GDP

Economic structure:

In 2021, services accounted for 80% of overall GDP, manufacturing 9%, other industrial activity 7%, and agriculture 4%. Looking at GDP by expenditure, private consumption accounted for 69% of GDP in 2021, government consumption 21%, fixed investment 18%, and net exports -8%.

GDP by economic sector
GDP by type of expenditure

International trade:

In 2021, manufactured products made up 39% of total merchandise exports, mineral fuels 28%, food 19%, ores and metals 9% and agricultural raw materials 2%, with other categories accounting for 3% of the total. In the same period, manufactured products made up 54% of total merchandise imports, mineral fuels 26%, food 12%, ores and metals 5% and agricultural raw materials 1%, with other goods accounting for 2% of the total. Total exports were worth USD 57 billion in 2022, while total imports were USD 98 billion.

Key exports
Key imports
Key export partners
Key import partners

Economic growth:

The economy recorded average annual stagnation in the decade to 2022. To read more about GDP growth in Greece, go to our dedicated page.

Fiscal policy:

Greece's fiscal deficit averaged 4.4% of GDP in the decade to 2022. Find out more on our dedicated page.


The unemployment rate averaged 21.1% in the decade to 2022. For more information on Greece's unemployment click here.


Inflation averaged 0.8% in the decade to 2022. Go to our Greece inflation page for extra insight.

Monetary Policy:

Euro Area monetary policy rate ended 2022 at 2.50%, up from 0.75% a decade earlier. See our Greece monetary policy page for additional details.

Exchange Rate:

From end-2012 to end-2022 the euro weakened by 18.2% vs the U.S. dollar. For more info on the euro, click here.
GDP flatlined in sequential terms in Q3 amid a broad-based deterioration that was offset by rising inventories. The economy should have grown in the last quarter of 2023. Industrial output expanded at a faster month-on-month pace in October–November compared to Q3 on sturdier manufacturing activity. Moreover, an uptick in the manufacturing PMI in December suggests that the sector continued to grow strongly. In addition, in October–November, the unemployment rate was below Q3’s level and tourist arrivals rose at a faster annual clip than in Q3. In other news, in mid-January, the government announced plans to sell a 30% stake in Athens International Airport for around EUR 800 million. It has also decided to sell a sizeable part of its 27% stake in Piraeus Bank; this follows the reduction of its stakes in Alpha Bank and National Bank of Greece.
Projections out to 2033.

49 indicators covered including both annual and quarterly frequencies.

Consensus Forecasts based on a panel of 24 expert analysts.

Want to get insight on the economic outlook for Greece in the coming years? FocusEconomics collects projections out to 2033 on 49 economic indicators for Greece from a panel of 24 analysts at the leading national, regional and global forecast institutions. These projections are then validated by our in-house team of economists and data analysts, and averaged to provide one Consensus Forecast you can rely on for each indicator. This means you avoid the risk of relying on out of date, biased or outlier forecasts. Our Consensus Forecasts can be visualized in whichever way best suits your needs, including via interactive online dashboards , direct data delivery and executive-style reports which combine analysts' projections with timely written analysis from our in-house team of economists on the latest developments in the Greece economy. To download a sample report on the Greece's economy, click here . To get in touch with our team for more information, fill in the form at the bottom of this page .

Grecia Datos económicos

2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Población (millones) 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.6
PIB (en millones de euros) 180 183 165 182 208
PIB per cápita (EUR) 16,717 17,096 15,431 17,012 19,561
Crecimiento económico (PIB nominal, var. anual) 1.5 2.1 -9.8 9.8 14.5
Crecimiento económico (PIB, var. anual) 1.5 1.8 -8.7 8.1 6.1
Demanda interna (% var. anual) 1.4 0.9 -3.2 7.3 8.1
Consumo privado (% var. anual) 1.7 1.6 -7.5 6.1 7.9
Consumo público (var. anual) -3.1 1.7 2.4 2.5 -1.5
Inversión fija (% var. anual) -4.2 -2.3 1.0 19.8 11.6
Exportaciones (G&S, % var. anual) 9.1 4.9 -21.5 24.1 4.9
Importaciones (G&S, % var. anual) 7.3 2.9 -7.5 17.9 10.9
Producción industrial (% var. anual) 1.6 -0.7 -2.0 10.1 2.3
Ventas al por menor (% var. anual) 1.4 0.8 -4.0 10.3 3.2
Renta disponible (var. anual) 0.0 2.4 -8.5 7.0 -
Desempleo (% de la población activa, eop) 19.0 17.0 16.7 12.9 12.4
Desempleo (% de la población activa, aop) 19.8 17.8 17.6 14.8 12.4
Saldo fiscal (% del PIB) 0.9 1.1 -9.9 -7.5 -
Deuda pública (% del PIB) 186 181 206 195 -
Inflación (IPCA, % var. anual, eop) 0.6 1.1 -2.4 4.4 7.6
Inflación (IPCA, % var. anual, aop) 0.8 0.5 -1.3 0.6 9.3
Inflación (IPP, % var. anual, aop) 4.3 0.4 -7.3 13.8 35.1
Rendimiento de los bonos a 10 años (%, eop) 4.40 1.46 0.63 1.31 4.57
Bolsa (var. de ASE %) -23.6 49.5 -11.8 10.4 4.1
Tipo de cambio (USD por EUR, eop) 1.14 1.12 1.22 1.14 1.07
Tipo de cambio (USD por EUR, aop) 1.18 1.12 1.14 1.18 1.05
Balanza por cuenta corriente (en millones de euros) -5.2 -2.7 -11.0 -12.3 -20.1
Balanza por cuenta corriente (% del PIB) -2.9 -1.5 -6.6 -6.8 -9.7
Balanza comercial de mercancías (en millones de euros) -22.5 -22.8 -18.5 -26.7 -39.0
Inversión extranjera directa (en millones de euros) 3.5 4.5 2.6 5.0 -

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