A river under the bridge in the Netherlands

Países Bajos Economy

Netherlands' economy in numbers:

Nominal GDP of USD 1,008 billion in 2022.

GDP per capita of USD 57,276 compared to the global average of USD 10,589.

Average real GDP growth of 1.7% over the last decade.

Share of the region's population
Share of the region's GDP

Economic structure:

In 2021, services accounted for 80% of overall GDP, manufacturing 11%, other industrial activity 7%, and agriculture 2%. Looking at GDP by expenditure, private consumption accounted for 42% of GDP in 2021, government consumption 26%, fixed investment 21%, and net exports 11%.

GDP by economic sector
GDP by type of expenditure

International trade:

In 2021, manufactured products made up 66% of total merchandise exports, mineral fuels 9%, food 15%, ores and metals 3% and agricultural raw materials 3%, with other categories accounting for 4% of the total. In the same period, manufactured products made up 67% of total merchandise imports, mineral fuels 13%, food 12%, ores and metals 3% and agricultural raw materials 2%, with other goods accounting for 3% of the total. Total exports were worth USD 730 billion in 2022, while total imports were USD 653 billion.

Key exports
Key imports
Key export partners
Key import partners

Economic growth:

The economy recorded average annual growth of 1.7% in the decade to 2022. To read more about GDP growth in Netherlands, go to our dedicated page.

Fiscal policy:

Netherlands's fiscal deficit averaged 1.1% of GDP in the decade to 2022. Find out more on our dedicated page.


The unemployment rate averaged 6.0% in the decade to 2022. For more information on Netherlands's unemployment click here.


Inflation averaged 2.5% in the decade to 2022. Go to our Netherlands inflation page for extra insight.

Monetary Policy:

Euro Area monetary policy rate ended 2022 at 2.50%, up from 0.75% a decade earlier. See our Netherlands monetary policy page for additional details.

Exchange Rate:

From end-2012 to end-2022 the euro weakened by 18.2% vs the U.S. dollar. For more info on the euro, click here.
The economy likely contracted at a slower pace year on year in Q4 than in Q3. Economic sentiment ticked up in the quarter compared to Q3’s average, while inflation eased, boosting purchasing power, and public consumption is expected to have increased. However, the manufacturing PMI averaged slightly lower in Q4 than in Q3, remaining in contractionary territory. Furthermore, goods exports saw another double-digit average contraction in October and November, and investment was likely dragged down by high interest rates. In politics, following the victory of the populist right-wing Party for Freedom (PVV) in general elections on 22 November, the parties have struggled to reach a coalition agreement. Centrist parties could form a government that would be supported informally by the PVV from the outside, which would ensure economic policy continuity.
Projections out to 2033.

48 indicators covered including both annual and quarterly frequencies.

Consensus Forecasts based on a panel of 22 expert analysts.

Want to get insight on the economic outlook for Netherlands in the coming years? FocusEconomics collects projections out to 2033 on 48 economic indicators for Netherlands from a panel of 22 analysts at the leading national, regional and global forecast institutions. These projections are then validated by our in-house team of economists and data analysts, and averaged to provide one Consensus Forecast you can rely on for each indicator. This means you avoid the risk of relying on out of date, biased or outlier forecasts. Our Consensus Forecasts can be visualized in whichever way best suits your needs, including via interactive online dashboards , direct data delivery and executive-style reports which combine analysts' projections with timely written analysis from our in-house team of economists on the latest developments in the Netherlands economy. To download a sample report on the Netherlands' economy, click here . To get in touch with our team for more information, fill in the form at the bottom of this page .

Países Bajos Datos económicos

2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Población (millones) 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6
PIB (en millones de euros) 774 813 797 856 943
PIB per cápita (EUR) 45,049 47,046 45,757 49,005 53,588
Crecimiento económico (PIB nominal, var. anual) 4.9 5.0 -1.6 7.6 -
Crecimiento económico (PIB, var. anual) 2.4 2.0 -3.9 4.9 4.5
Demanda interna (% var. anual) 2.4 3.0 -4.2 3.9 3.6
Consumo privado (% var. anual) 2.2 0.9 -6.4 3.6 6.6
Consumo público (var. anual) 1.7 2.8 1.6 5.2 0.3
Inversión fija (% var. anual) 3.6 6.2 -2.6 3.3 3.1
Exportaciones (G&S, % var. anual) 4.3 2.0 -4.3 5.2 5.2
Importaciones (G&S, % var. anual) 4.7 3.2 -4.7 4.0 4.3
Producción industrial (% var. anual) 0.6 -0.9 -3.6 4.8 2.4
Ventas al por menor (% var. anual) 2.9 2.3 4.2 2.9 -0.5
Renta disponible (var. anual) 2.7 2.4 2.3 1.9 -0.6
Desempleo (% de la población activa, eop) 4.6 4.3 4.9 3.8 3.5
Desempleo (% de la población activa, aop) 4.9 4.4 4.9 4.2 3.5
Saldo fiscal (% del PIB) 1.5 1.8 -3.7 -2.6 -
Deuda pública (% del PIB) 52.4 48.5 54.7 52.4 -
Inflación (IPCA, % var. anual, eop) 1.8 2.8 0.9 6.4 11.0
Inflación (IPCA, % var. anual, aop) 1.6 2.7 1.1 2.8 11.6
Inflación (IPP, % var. anual, aop) 3.0 0.9 -4.2 12.5 23.8
Rendimiento de los bonos a 10 años (%, eop) 0.39 -0.08 -0.50 -0.03 2.90
Bolsa (var. de AEX %) -10.4 23.9 3.3 27.8 -13.7
Balanza por cuenta corriente (en millones de euros) 72.1 56.3 41.0 61.5 -
Balanza por cuenta corriente (% del PIB) 9.3 6.9 5.1 7.2 -
Balanza comercial de mercancías (en millones de euros) 57 55 59 62 -
Exportaciones de mercancías (% var. anual) 7 3 -6 22 -
Inversión extranjera directa (en millones de euros) 77 -13 -86 -71 -

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