A mosque in Brunei

Brunei Economy

Brunei's economy in numbers:

Nominal GDP of USD 16.7 billion in 2022.

GDP per capita of USD 37,826 compared to the global average of USD 10,589.

Average real GDP growth of 0.3% over the last decade.

Share of the region's population
Share of the region's GDP

Economic structure:

In 2021, services accounted for 36% of overall GDP, manufacturing 19%, other industrial activity 44%, and agriculture 1%. Looking at GDP by expenditure, private consumption accounted for 25% of GDP in 2021, government consumption 22%, fixed investment 31%, and net exports 22%.

GDP by economic sector
GDP by type of expenditure

International trade:

In 2020, manufactured products made up 18% of total merchandise exports, mineral fuels 82%, food 0%, ores and metals 0% and agricultural raw materials 0%, with other categories accounting for 0% of the total. In the same period, manufactured products made up 52% of total merchandise imports, mineral fuels 37%, food 11%, ores and metals 0% and agricultural raw materials 0%, with other goods accounting for 0% of the total. Total exports were worth USD 14 billion in 2022, while total imports were USD 9 billion.

Key exports
Key imports
Key export partners
Key import partners

Economic growth:

The economy recorded an average annual decrease of 0.3% in the decade to 2022. To read more about GDP growth in Brunei, go to our dedicated page.

Fiscal policy:

Brunei's fiscal deficit averaged 3.9% of GDP in the decade to 2022. Find out more on our dedicated page.


The unemployment rate averaged 7.6% in the decade to 2022. For more information on Brunei's unemployment click here.


Inflation averaged 0.6% in the decade to 2022. Go to our Brunei inflation page for extra insight.

Monetary Policy:

Brunei's monetary policy rate ended 2022 at 5.50%, on the same level as a decade earlier. See our Brunei monetary policy page for additional details.

Exchange Rate:

From end-2012 to end-2022 the Brunei dollar weakened by 7.7% vs the U.S. dollar. For more info on the Brunei dollar, click here.
The economy swung to expansion in Q3 2023, with GDP rising 0.7% year on year following Q2’s 3.1% decrease. Sector-wise, the non-oil-and-gas sector grew on the back of an over 20% jump in downstream activity, while the oil and gas sector continued to contract mainly due to a slump in the production of liquified natural gas. From an expenditure point of view, the main cause of the rebound was restocking and softer falls in exports and public spending. However, fixed investment swung to contraction and household spending growth cooled. Looking at available data for Q4, net merchandise exports fell more sharply yoy in October than in Q3. Merchandise exports surged on rising export volumes for crude oil, but merchandise imports also rose considerably amid increased purchases of mineral fuels.
Projections out to 2033.

36 indicators covered including both annual and quarterly frequencies.

Consensus Forecasts based on a panel of 6 expert analysts.

Want to get insight on the economic outlook for Brunei in the coming years? FocusEconomics collects projections out to 2033 on 36 economic indicators for Brunei from a panel of 6 analysts at the leading national, regional and global forecast institutions. These projections are then validated by our in-house team of economists and data analysts, and averaged to provide one Consensus Forecast you can rely on for each indicator. This means you avoid the risk of relying on out of date, biased or outlier forecasts. Our Consensus Forecasts can be visualized in whichever way best suits your needs, including via interactive online dashboards , direct data delivery and executive-style reports which combine analysts' projections with timely written analysis from our in-house team of economists on the latest developments in the Brunei economy. To download a sample report on the Brunei's economy, click here . To get in touch with our team for more information, fill in the form at the bottom of this page .

Brunei Datos económicos

2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Población (millones) 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4
PIB (en millones de dólares) 13.6 13.5 12.0 14.0 -
PIB per cápita (USD) 30,688 29,283 26,454 32,574 -
PIB (BND bn) 18.3 18.4 16.6 18.8 -
Crecimiento económico (PIB nominal, var. anual) 9.3 0.4 -9.9 13.6 -
Crecimiento económico (PIB, var. anual) 0.1 3.9 1.1 -1.6 -
Consumo privado (% var. anual) 2.8 5.9 5.3 21.9 -
Consumo público (var. anual) 1.6 1.8 -9.6 2.6 -
Inversión fija (% var. anual) 28.3 -4.4 -9.3 -13.9 -
Exportaciones (G&S, % var. anual) 2.8 14.9 7.5 8.8 -
Importaciones (G&S, % var. anual) 28.1 13.8 -2.1 29.5 -
Saldo fiscal (% del PIB) -3.6 -9.7 -15.8 -8.0 -
Deuda pública (% del PIB) 2.6 2.6 2.9 2.5 1.9
Inflación (IPC, % var. anual, aop) 1.0 -0.4 1.9 1.7 3.7
Tipo de interés preferencial (%, eop) 5.50 5.50 5.50 5.50 5.50
Tipo de cambio (BND por USD, eop) 1.36 1.34 1.32 1.35 1.34
Tipo de cambio (BND por USD, aop) 1.35 1.36 1.38 1.34 1.38
Balanza por cuenta corriente (en millones de dólares) 0.9 0.9 0.5 1.6 -
Balanza por cuenta corriente (% del PIB) 6.9 6.6 4.3 11.2 -
Balanza comercial de mercancías (en millones de USD) 2.4 2.2 1.4 2.7 -
Exportaciones de mercancías (en millones de dólares) 6.5 7.2 6.5 11.0 -
Importaciones de mercancías (en millones de dólares) 4.1 5.0 5.2 8.3 -
Exportaciones de mercancías (% var. anual) 18.2 11.4 -9.4 68.3 -
Importaciones de mercancías (% var. anual) 33.7 21.8 3.5 60.8 -
Inversión extranjera directa (en millones de dólares) 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.2 -
Reservas internacionales (en millones de dólares) 3.2 4.1 3.7 - -
Reservas internacionales (meses de importaciones) 9.4 9.7 8.6 - -

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