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Ruanda Economy

Rwanda's economy in numbers:

Nominal GDP of USD 13.3 billion in 2022.

GDP per capita of USD 1,006 compared to the global average of USD 10,589.

Average real GDP growth of 6.5% over the last decade.

Share of the region's population
Share of the region's GDP

Economic structure:

In 2021, services accounted for 56% of overall GDP, manufacturing 9%, other industrial activity 11%, and agriculture 24%. Looking at GDP by expenditure, private consumption accounted for 72% of GDP in 2021, government consumption 17%, fixed investment 26%, and net exports -15%.

GDP by economic sector
GDP by type of expenditure

International trade:

In 2019, manufactured products made up 8% of total merchandise exports, mineral fuels 2%, food 35%, ores and metals 15% and agricultural raw materials 1%, with other categories accounting for 39% of the total. In the same period, manufactured products made up 56% of total merchandise imports, mineral fuels 17%, food 17%, ores and metals 1% and agricultural raw materials 1%, with other goods accounting for 8% of the total. Total exports were worth USD 2 billion in 2022, while total imports were USD 4 billion.

Key exports
Key imports
Key export partners
Key import partners

Economic growth:

The economy recorded average annual growth of 6.5% in the decade to 2022. To read more about GDP growth in Rwanda, go to our dedicated page.

Fiscal policy:

Rwanda's fiscal deficit averaged 4.1% of GDP in the decade to 2022. Find out more on our dedicated page.


The unemployment rate averaged 12.3% in the decade to 2022. For more information on Rwanda's unemployment click here.


Inflation averaged 6.1% in the decade to 2022. Go to our Rwanda inflation page for extra insight.

Monetary Policy:

Rwanda's monetary policy rate ended 2022 at 6.50%, down from 7.50% a decade earlier. See our Rwanda monetary policy page for additional details.

Exchange Rate:

From end-2012 to end-2022 the Rwanda franc weakened by 42.3% vs the U.S. dollar. For more info on the Rwanda franc, click here. For more info on the Rwandan franc, click here.
Annual economic growth accelerated to 7.5% in Q3 from 6.3% in Q2. The improvement was driven by a strong rebound in private consumption—which accounts for roughly 72% of GDP. Additionally, fixed investment growth strengthened markedly. On the flip side, public spending shrank, and exports growth lost steam. Available data for Q4 paints a mixed picture. On the one hand, inflation decelerated noticeably throughout the quarter, and merchandise exports growth gained traction in October–November. On the other hand, both manufacturing and mining output posted sharp contractions in the same two-month period. In other news, on 17 January, the U.K. Parliament approved a law to send asylum seekers to Rwanda. The U.K. has already paid around USD 300 million to the African nation, which has not yet received any asylum seekers.
Projections out to 2033.

40 indicators covered including both annual and quarterly frequencies.

Consensus Forecasts based on a panel of 7 expert analysts.

Want to get insight on the economic outlook for Rwanda in the coming years? FocusEconomics collects projections out to 2033 on 40 economic indicators for Rwanda from a panel of 7 analysts at the leading national, regional and global forecast institutions. These projections are then validated by our in-house team of economists and data analysts, and averaged to provide one Consensus Forecast you can rely on for each indicator. This means you avoid the risk of relying on out of date, biased or outlier forecasts. Our Consensus Forecasts can be visualized in whichever way best suits your needs, including via interactive online dashboards , direct data delivery and executive-style reports which combine analysts' projections with timely written analysis from our in-house team of economists on the latest developments in the Rwanda economy. To download a sample report on the Rwanda's economy, click here . To get in touch with our team for more information, fill in the form at the bottom of this page .

Ruanda Datos económicos

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